Funingana, I. G., et al, Seminars in Immunopathology, Jan 2023
High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Its diagnosis at advanced stage compounded with its excessive genomic and cellular heterogeneity make curative treatment challenging. Two critical therapeutic challenges to overcome are carboplatin resistance and lack of response to immunotherapy. Carboplatin resistance results from diverse cell autonomous mechanisms which operate in different combinations within and across tumors. The lack of response to immunotherapy is highly likely to be related to an immunosuppressive HGSOC tumor microenvironment which overrides any clinical benefit. Results from a number of studies, mainly using transcriptomics, indicate that the immune tumor microenvironment (iTME) plays a role in carboplatin response. However, in patients receiving treatment, the exact mechanistic details are unclear. During the past decade, multiplex single-cell proteomic technologies have come to the forefront of biomedical research. Mass cytometry or cytometry by time-of-flight, measures up to 60 parameters in single cells that are in suspension. Multiplex cellular imaging technologies allow simultaneous measurement of up to 60 proteins in single cells with spatial resolution and interrogation of cell–cell interactions. This review suggests that functional interplay between cell autonomous responses to carboplatin and the HGSOC immune tumor microenvironment could be clarified through the application of multiplex single-cell proteomic technologies.